Hinduism's greatest boon is the inaccessibility of its scriptures. Written in cryptic Sanskrit with a lot of room for interpretation, anyone can pick a scripture that suits their beliefs. With shifting goalposts, it is very hard to show Hindu theists the harm their religion is causing. Some literature does exist that is very critical of the scriptures, but it can be hard to find. Here are a few on top of my head:
Dr. Kamath's articles on Nirmukta.com
make a good critique of Brahmanism in the Vedas, Upanishads and the Gita.
There is this book which I plan to get my hands on - The Poisonous Tree of Ramayana
. Many Hindus believe Rama as the epitome of moral and ethical behavior, a God figure. But in Ramayana he just comes across as another regular guy with his own biases and weaknesses. Applying Ram Rajya
morals to today's India can lead to some unsavory situations.
And then there is Manusmriti, a misogynist racist masterpiece
. So shameless it is in its recommendations that some Hindu apologists have disowned it. But many of its ideas still find good support among Hindus.
As to casteism, the big books of Hinduism implicitly support it. Nowhere will you find them explicitly condemning the Varna/Jati dharma. For example, the Gita says "It is far better to discharge one's prescribed duties, even though faultily, than another's duties perfectly. Destruction in the course of performing one's own duty is better than engaging in another's duties, for to follow another's path is dangerous.
" (3.35). Here the duty is that of one's Varna. In Mahabharat when Yudhishthira inquires about Kaliyuga
, Markandeya mentions "Brahmanas and Kshatriyas and Vaisyas will be reduced to an equality with the Sudras
" as one of the evils of Kaliyuga.
There is also the arrogance aspect of Hinduism that has held back scientific inquiry. Some Hindus firmly believe that the scriptures know everything about the Universe and the rest of the world is inhabited by troglodytes who are just discovering civilization. Al-Beruni, a Persian scholar was quick to notice that conceit
when he visited India in the 11th century.
Also, I believe that it is important to know the context in which a scripture was written. For example, for many Hindus Vedas represent a golden age where everything was happy and dandy. But they were created by pastoral people who had sufficient food to eat and plenty of land to roam around on. Applying vedic ideals to present day India can be counterproductive. Many theists just don't understand the context in which scriptures were created.