Carvaka - Research - References
(09-Jan-2012, 02:54 PM)Madhukar Kulkarni Wrote: Kapil muni was the first known atheist in India. His school of thought was known as Samkhya. The samkhyas did not believe in the existsnce of god and believed that the universe was not god's creation but it has existed since time imemmorial Sanhkhyas had created a vast philosophy of their own and were very respected by the vaidic religion. Lord Krishna describes himself as"I am the Kapila among the siddhas" in Geeta..

There is such a fundamental difference between Carvaka (heavy emphasis on direct perception) and Samkya (Some things cannot be perceived, just have to accept them) that I don't see how Samkya is relevant to this thread. Carvaka doesn't just mean non-belief in a creator god. Anyone who has read this entire thread would have noticed that. Please don't post offtopic comments.

Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya's works on Atheism/Materialism in Ancient India:

1. Indian Atheism,1969
2. Lokayata: A Study in Ancient Indian Materialism,1959, People's Publishing House, New Delhi
3.In Defence of Materialism in Ancient India,1989, People's Publishing House, New Delhi

I recently discovered a stash of his books at a friend's place. I will try my best to read and analyze them.
Some references to charvaka philosophy
1. Book : Indian philosophy - An introduction to Hindu and Buddhist thought by Richard King
It is an interesting book on indian philosophy. Adopting an unconventional approach the author compares and contrasts different schools of thought. As the author himself notes this is important because there is an attempts especially by Hindu nationalists to represent whole Indian philosophy as a monolith there by causing a great injustices to its diversity.
In the second chapter of the book author brifly (about3-4 pgs) discusses charvaka philosophy and compares it to secular humanism. He presents a very interesting quote by brihaspathi thought to be the founder of Charvaka which sharply criticizes the superstition of Vedic practices.

2. Blog posts on indin philosophy from a rationalistic perspective see
some of the posts by the above author about the charvaka's are given below

3. Naturalism in indian philosophy see a scholarly discussion on naturalistic thought in Indian philosophy (since the link is not available to everyone i have attached a pdf document containing the entire post.

Attached Files
.pdf   Naturalism in Classical Indian Philosophy.pdf (Size: 392.13 KB / Downloads: 4)
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Just found a new reference.
Indians today are governed by two different ideologies. Their political ideal set in the preamble of the Constitution affirms a life of liberty, equality and fraternity. Their social ideal embodied in their religion denies them. - Ambedkar
This upcoming film maybe one of the rare instances where popular culture acknowledges Charvaka and Pastafarian influences along with more contemporary influences like Peter Singer.
Ship of Theseus
It seems to be an award-winning genre-bender that will appeal to freethinkers and secular humanists.

Edit: Adding the trailer of the movie...

The Carvaka school only considers Pratyaksha(perception) as source of knowledge. They also consider logical deduction based on premise derived from direct experience.
The Carvaka school rejects Pramana(inference) and Shabd(testimony) as reliable sources of knowledge.
The Carvaka school also accepts four elements as physical : Fire,Air,Water and Earth.

I have a perfectly logical argument for Carvaka in the following example :
Where there is fire there is smoke. That smoke tells us that there is fire(inference). Here not even perception is necessary as smoke(air) is physical and so is fire. This can be called direct experience or a premise based on direct experience.
The premise being that physical transformation takes place.
Deduction: All experiences are physical.

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